The mountainous area of Bargou represents a local example of the Mediterranean mountains evolution in the semi-arid bioclimatic system. Despite its limited geographic expansion, that mountainous area situated in the medium dorsale of Tunisia, offers a variety of ecosystems and landscapes that depend on the local ecological conditions such as the local climate, the actual and inherited agricultural practices and the pastoral system. In fact, that area knew an ancient population implantation which leads to an excessive exploitation of the natural resources (essentially soils and natural vegetation) via deforestation aiming to extend the agricultural area. That human pressure is the major factor of the environmental and social crisis in this region. The decrease in the vegetation extension, the deterioration of plant cover and the acceleration of erosion, led to a social abandonment that has started from the seventies of the 20th century. This paper suggests an array of solutions inspired from the local environmental characteristics in order to support the local sustainable development in rural areas in Tunisia.